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Who Owns The Internet?

As most reading this probably know, the internet as a whole is not owned by any one body, but that doesn't stop people from claiming ownership to it. The internet as we know it is a huge range of servers and networks across the world all connected through phone lines, satellite, and radio. Using different protocols and protections, the results is the same for almost everyone across the world; full access to the global network.

The internet was originally invented as a small data network for academics and governments to use to share information, but this grew exponentially to the trillions of pages we know and love today. As more and more pages are created, people are constantly finding ways to monopolize on the internet, not just through advertising but through denying access to certain sites (see Net Neutrality). Even the people responsible for creating the internet do not claim ownership of it; it has grown beyond any one country, person, or organization.

Somebody saying that they own the internet is like someone saying that they own the radio; they might own a station, but they cannot own the concept or total. Thousands upon millions of people around the world own a small facet of the internet, such as their own private server or website. The only people who own the internet are those who own an internet, not the World Wide Web. For example, North Koreas internet/intranet known as Kwangmyong is owned by their leader; Kim Jong Un. This is not the internet as we know it, but it is a collection of smaller networks available around the country, so it is definitely an internet.

The most important distinction here is that nobody (currently) owns the World Wide Web. Despite this, people and companies worldwide attempt to regulate and charge for access to the internet every day. ISPs are the major example, having historically charged for internet access as they need to, understandably, make a profit and keep their networks maintained. Most people accept this, the service is invaluable in modern life and there is always great value in internet access.

It's critical that people know where ISPs authority ends however, and with Net Neutrality laws being repealed in America this line is becoming more blurred by the day. ISPs should not be politically driven. ISPs should not throttle a users connection speed depending on how much they have paid extra. ISPs should not control which sites a person has access to. And ISPs should not charge extra for content their lobbyists do not like. It's unethical, and it hurts the development and free speech of the world by doing so.

Let's be clear here, ISPs do not own the internet, they regulate the way in which people can access the internet. The favourite example is that of a librarian in a public library; he does not own the books. But if Net Neutrality is repealed, it's comparable to this librarian charging you extra to rent books she doesn't agree with, while giving you her favourite author on your library card.

The people who donated to the library have more ownership than the librarian does, including the authors and builders. People can own servers, and they technically own and control their own corner of the internet, but once something is online, it belongs to the public domain. The internet belongs to everybody, and everybody has a right to it.


Crypto-currencies (CCs) like Bitcoin and Litecoin are unlike anything that's ever been used before, and are a massively rising investment for many people and businesses worldwide. Previously, all currencies have been regulated by a country or government, and are subject to any countries rules and regulations on trading, but CCs are wildly different. They have no central bank, regulatory authority, or even nation state which controls them. CCs are a wildcard in the system at the moment, and their wavering price is a consequence of this.

CCs began with the advent of Bitcoin in 2009, when a mystery person created what people thought was impossible; a coded, untraceable currency with no physical form. The creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, does not exist in a conventional sense; it is a made up identity of which nobody has proven claim to. Satoshi invented a shifting block cipher of which the public ledger is publicly available, meaning you don't need a bank to verify purchases. This was huge for its intended audience, and has been mimicked many times with various other CCs like Litecoin. Bitcoin was originally created to be used to anonymously purchase illegal goods online, with no bank record. Mainly built for Tor based e-commerce sites such as Silk Road, this provided the perfect option for people to purchase drugs or services anonymously. Go to your bank, exchange money for a cashiers cheque or money order, and then exchange this for Bitcoin online. Bitcoin is then traded for illegal goods or services, with no record of you having purchased the currency at all.

At the start of Bitcoin in 2009-2010, many companies saw the potential gains to be had early on, and allowed users to purchase legal services with the niche currency. A famous example of this is the 'Pizza Story'; someone in America purchased 2 pizzas for 10,000 BTC in 2010. Today, with current BTC prices, this would be worth over $25 Million. That's some expensive pizza.

Across the world people have been making money off of Bitcoin, weather through buying and selling, investing, or even mining. Mining is where a user sets up a computer to process the public algorithm and find small amounts of unclaimed Bitcoins by sheer brute-force. Around 2011 and 2012, it was so profitable for people to mine that it set up a knock on effect for anyone doing it; mine a few BTC, buy another GPU or server rack, mine more, rinse and repeat. People built small empires on mining, but this side has fallen to the wayside in recent years, but why?

It's simple; there is a limited number of Bitcoins on the market. There's no government to produce more, or to profit from it, there is simply a finite amount of Bitcoin in the world. Mining becomes less effective when reserves run low, and the mining empires began to slow and fall. More Bitcoins have been released to the public, but they have not been produced, someone was simply storing them until they became worthwhile to sell. So what do you do when your mine is running low? You move to another spot and continue mining.

As mining began to run dry, there was a massive increase in demand for alternatives to this currency, where people could trade them as a stock and use them for anything they wanted. This is where CCs such as Litecoin and Ethereum began their rise, filling the market space that Bitcoin was leaving behind. Swimming in its wake, if you will. Now, these CCs are all virtually the same, disregarding their current popularities. They all use a tweaked or reinvented version of Bitcoins original algorithm, and mining for any of the CCs is as easy as it is with Bitcoin. Mining software is free, open source, and easily available online, but the returns are miniscule now for the average user. Much like the Gold-Rush back in the heyday of California, all of the economically viable mining has already been done, and people turning up now are mostly just too late to profit from it.

Historically, many countries do not fundamentally agree with untraceable crypto-currencies, but why? Is it because these currencies have been used for illegal trading? No, because many full-blown public companies such as Microsoft and Sony accept them as legal tender. Countries do not like Bitcoin because they have no control over them; they are a wildcard in the system, capable of inflation and devaluing the same as any other commodity, but independent of any country. Crypto currencies have made many people into millionaires, but with none of the legal impacts that, say, investment banking would come with. If you vaguely remember owning Bitcoin on an old hard-drive somewhere, definitely move heaven and earth to find it, you could be a hidden millionaire too.

Computer And Laptop Fixes Manchester, England.

Shopping For A New Computer Or Computer laptop?

This article is all about what to look for if you are choosing a new PC computer or a laptop. There are a lot of people that have virtually no guidelines when it comes to what to look out for when selecting personal computers, laptops, and PC equipment. I hope that the details in this short article can help and help you.

The more information that you have relating to the different parts of computer systems and laptop computers etc. The more straightforward it should be for you to make the right choices when you finally do go to purchase your hardware.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR When Purchasing A DESKTOP PC OR Laptop computer

If you are not certain about whether to go for a desktop personal computer or a mobile computer, a desktop PC will probably give you the least expensive computing optrion for the same cash.

Mobile computers are particularly favourable because they are typically simpler and easier to carry around, but if you have the workspace space at your home and you do not have to be working whilst you are moving about, a desktop PC (which may be similar in cost to a laptop( is what you ought to go with.

For those who play pc games, make music, do video editing, and so on, you will definitely require more computing power.

Desktop computer pc's are normally far more comfy when used for hours on end particularly when used with ergonomic keyboards and a large monitor, by using a a larger monitor, you are less likely to get eyestrain. After your equipment is set up in the right way on a computer desk, it is going to give you an exceptionally more comfortable working experiemce.

PC's almost always come set up with an operating system like Microsoft Windows, or Macintosh OS. It is pretty much just down to personal taste with regards to which one you pick.

The price is dependent upon your personal preferences, and exactly what you're willing to spend

Nowadays, virtually every home possesses one or more computer systems. The majority of people use their PCs each day for work, for entertainment, as well as for interactions with family and friends.

We depend upon our computing devices to access the web, to save important data, photographs and video clips etc. and we'd be lost if they suddeny stopped working without any warning.

Whenever anything fails on your computer you will need someone reliable and honest who is able to resolve the problem quickly and efficiently. Ypu need somebody who will not baffle you with techie lingo and who won't rip you off in the process.

A pc repair specialist can find the problems and fix them, they will get your equipment back up and functioning in the shortest possible time, irrespective of whether it is the blue screen of death, malware or spyware that's invaded your pc, or if your operating-system will not start up.

Contact the qualified professionals, get in touch with Fix Computer Manchester today.

Cyber Phishing Has Increased By 55 Percent In 2015

Phishing is a term used when an attempt is made to acquire sensitive information from companys data bases such things as usernames, passwords and credit card details for malicious reasons. In many cases the Phishing is seen to be a trusted source so access in many cases is granted not knowing that the company has been exposed. In many cases Phishing comes from email communications purporting to be banks, online payment processing, popular social web sites or IT administrators, most Phishing emails contain links to websites that are infected with malware.

The number of cyber-attacks has increased at an astounding rate; in 2015 there was a reported 55 percent increase in the number of cyber-attack compared to 2014.

Even the blue chip organisations are at risk, a government or financial company targeted for one attack was more than likely be attacked a further 3 times throughout the year. Overall in 2015 large blue chip companies that experienced one cyber-attack was most likely to be attacked on average 3.6 time more in that year.

Companies of all sizes are being attacked; there was a 43 percent increase in small companies being attacked in 2015. The intellectual property that is stolen from cyber-attacks can be used for many reasons some can be to hold companies at ransom for their data, others which is just a worrying can be created by competitors.

There has been a significant increase in competitors actually stealing customers details, pricing information and other business sensitive details from their own competitors using cyber-attacks. The information that is stolen can give the competitor a significant advantage over everyone else in that sector, so it is seen to be worth the risk.

Every company small or large is at risk of a cyber-attack, and the motivating factor to instigate the attack is varied, but one thing is very clear; the attack is harmful and can damage the effected company in various ways.

The attacks on small companies can be very technically sophisticated and targeted, making sure that the attackers have maximum impact on the unsuspecting victim. The attacks on large blue chip organisations tend to be for maximum effect, gaining large scale publicity within media and harming companys reputations, even if no financial gain is achieved.

Cyber-attacks are a part of our commercial lives, all necessary precaution needs to be taken to minimise the exposure and systems must be up-to-date and staff must play a big part in being vigilant within their organisation. The company needs to ensure that the backup system that they implement is secure, one way to ensure privacy is to use an encrypted backup system.